Holocene Earth ] Back | Next >

 North America

Mean atmospheric O2
 21% of all gases

Mean atmospheric CO2
 0.035% of all gases

Average temperature

Holocene Earth - House Sparrows & electric substation, English Sparrow, Indian Sparrow, Spatzie, Spotsie - Natural History Illustration Geologic Time Scale

 Era: Cenozoic
  Period: Quaternary
   Epoch: Holocene*
    Age: Undefined


House Sparrows & electric substation

Birds of the species Passer domesticus, known as House Sparrows, roost on a modern day electric substation that could be just about any place on Earth where there's civilization.

House Sparrows are small, plump gray and brown birds with short tails and short, powerful beaks. Traditionally seed-eaters, they originated in the Middle East and followed human agriculture to most of Eurasia and parts of North Africa. About 150 years ago House Sparrows vastly expanded their range to include most of the world, due in large part to deliberate introduction by humans. Willing to eat just about anything, House Sparrows are well-adapted urban environments. As a result they have become the most common and widely-distributed bird in the world.

An electric substation (or electrical substation) is a subsidiary unit of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low, or vice versa, using transformers.

* Some experts argue that Holocene ("entirely new") should be replaced with the term “Anthropocene” ("man new") because humans have caused mass extinctions of plant and animal species, while distributing others across the globe, polluted the oceans, and altered the atmosphere.


Copyright Walter B. Myers. All rights reserved.

Terms of use

Home | What's New | The Graphics | Information | Site Map |  ]