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 South Dakota, USA
 35 million years ago

Mean atmospheric O2
 130% of modern level

Mean atmospheric CO2
 2x pre-industrial level

Mean temperature
 4C above modern level

Cenozoic Earth - Two Brontotherium with birds under a cloudy sky in South Dakota 35 million years ago; megafauna; Titanotheres; Titanothere; Brontotheres; Brontothere - Natural History Illustration Geologic Time Scale

 Era: Cenozoic
  Period: Paleogene
   Epoch: Eocene
    Age: Priabonian


Brontotherium with birds

Odd-toed ungulate mammals of the genus Brontotherium (AKA Megacerops) wander the lush Late Eocene landscape of South Dakota 35 million years ago.

Modern rhinoceroses have a symbiotic relationship with birds (variously known as oxpeckers or tick birds) that eat parasites they find on the rhino's skin and noisily warn of danger. No doubt similar symbiotic relationships existed between birds and the megafauna of the Eocene.



Copyright Walter B. Myers. All rights reserved.

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