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 255 million years ago

Mean atmospheric O2
 115% of modern level

Mean atmospheric CO2
 3x pre-industrial level

Mean temperature
 2C above modern level


Paleozoic Earth - Estemmenosuchus mirabilis portrait; therapsids; synapsids; herbivores; Paleozoic; Permian - Natural History Illustration Geologic Time Scale 

 Era: Paleozoic
  Period: Permian
   Epoch: Lopingian
    Age: Wuchiapingian


Estemmenosuchus mirabilis portrait

A dinocephalian therapsid from the species Estemmenosuchus mirabilis stands before a lake 255 million years ago in what is today the Perm region of Russia near the Ural Mountains. An ungainly plant-eater, it was the largest animal of its day and is known for its distinctive horns. Maybe not the most handsome of beasts, Estemmenosuchus mirabilis was an early ancestor of today's mammals. In this image it stands among several varieties of fern while cycads of the species Bjuvia simplex populate the far side of the lake.



Copyright Walter B. Myers. All rights reserved.

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