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 255 million years ago

Mean atmospheric O2
 115% of modern level

Mean atmospheric CO2
 3x pre-industrial level

Mean temperature
 2C above modern level


Paleozoic Earth - Estemmenosuchus mirabilis face off in a Paleozoic lake - Natural History Illustration Geologic Time Scale 

 Era: Paleozoic
  Period: Permian
   Epoch: Lopingian
    Age: Wuchiapingian


Estemmenosuchus mirabilis waterside

Resembling modern day hippopotami, three dinocephalian therapsids  from the species Estemmenosuchus mirabilis  face off in a Paleozoic lake 255 million years ago in what is today the Perm region of Russia near the Ural Mountains. About the size of a modern adult bull, Estemmenosuchus mirabilis was a plant-eating early ancestor of today's mammals.

The nearby trees are gymnosperms of the genus Cordaites and in the water are various varieties of horsetail.



Copyright Walter B. Myers. All rights reserved.

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