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 255 million years ago

Mean atmospheric O2
 115% of modern level

Mean atmospheric CO2
 3x pre-industrial level

Mean temperature
 2C above modern level


Paleozoic Earth - Estemmenosuchus uralensis grazing on a sunny afternoon under a blue sky amongst Cordaites angulostriatus, ferns and horse tails - Natural History Illustration Geologic Time Scale 

 Era: Paleozoic
  Period: Permian
   Epoch: Lopingian
    Age: Wuchiapingian


Estemmenosuchus uralensis grazing

An herbivorous dinocephalian therapsid (a primitive mammal-like reptile) from the species Estemmenosuchus uralensis grazes on a hilltop 255 million years ago in what is today the Perm region of Russia near the Ural Mountains. About the size of a modern adult bull, Estemmenosuchus uralensis was an early ancestor of today's mammals, however it's not known whether Estemmenosuchus uralensis was warm blooded.

The surrounding trees are gymnosperms of the genus Cordaites and the foreground plants are ferns.



Copyright Walter B. Myers. All rights reserved.

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