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 Southern Africa
 262 million years ago

Mean atmospheric O2
 115% of modern level

Mean atmospheric CO2
 3x pre-industrial level

Mean temperature
 2C above modern level


Paleozoic Earth - Jonkeria in shallow stream a mid-Permian desert 262 million years ago in what is today South Africa; dinocephalian therapsids; Dinocephalia; Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone; Lower Beaufort Group; South African Karroo; terrestrial vertebrates  - Natural History Illustration Geologic Time Scale

 Era: Paleozoic
  Period: Permian
   Epoch: Lopingian
    Age: Capitanian



12-foot-long 500 pound dinocephalian therapsids of the genus Jonkeria pause in a shallow stream in a dry mid-Permian landscape 262 million years ago in what is today South Africa. Vegetation includes various ferns.

Jonkeria was large mammal-like reptile with a stout pig-like build. Paleontologists haven't been able to determine whether Jonkeria was an herbivore, carnivore, or possibly like modern pigs an omnivore.



Copyright Walter B. Myers. All rights reserved.

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