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 318 million years ago

Mean atmospheric O2
 163% of modern level

Mean atmospheric CO2
 3x pre-industrial level

Mean temperature
 Same as modern level


Paleozoic Earth - Carboniferous Neuropteris growing amongst moss, Lepidodendron, cockroaches and a millipede; bituminous coal; black coal - Natural History Illustration Geologic Time Scale

 Era: Paleozoic
  Period: Carboniferous*
   Epoch: Early
    Age: Bashkirian



A four-foot-tall seed fern from the genus Neuropteris grows near waters edge among towering tree-like plants from the genus Lepidodendron over 300 million years ago in what is today North America. On the lower left are "roachoids," primitive ancestors of modern cockroaches from the Superorder Dictyoptera, and on the right is a giant millipede from the class Diplopoda.

Now extinct, Neuropteris thrived for most of the Carboniferous, its distinctive leaves making up some of the most common fossils from this period.

*AKA Carboniferous/ Pennsylvanian


Copyright Walter B. Myers. All rights reserved.

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