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 380 million years ago

Mean atmospheric O2
 75% of modern level

Mean atmospheric CO2
 8x pre-industrial level

Mean temperature
 6C above modern level


Paleozoic Earth - 12-inch-long armored Bothropelpis on land; benthic freshwater detrivore; antiarch placoderm; Lycopsids; Pleuromeia; horsetails - Natural History Illustration Geologic Time Scale

 Era: Paleozoic
  Period: Devonian
   Epoch: Late
    Age: Frasnian


Bothriolepis ashore

Several antiarch placoderms from the genus Bothriolepis emerge from a shallow tributary onto dry land 380 million years ago during the Late Devonian. Bothriolepis is believed to have been primarily an aquatic creature, however there's evidence that it may have possessed lungs in addition to gills. Bothropelpis also had jointed arms and a rigid skeleton, leading to speculation that Bothropelpis may have been able to travel over land.

Flora in this scene includes ground mosses, Horsetails and Lycopsids.



Copyright Walter B. Myers. All rights reserved.

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