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 410 million years ago

Mean atmospheric O2
 75% of modern level

Mean atmospheric CO2
 8x pre-industrial level

Mean temperature
 6C above modern level


Paleozoic Earth - Primitive jawless fish of the genus Doryaspis swim amongst a bed of sea anemones 410 million years ago; Lyktaspis; Panthalassa; Panthalassic Ocean; Paleo Tethys Sea - Natural History Illustration

Geologic Time Scale

 Era: Paleozoic
  Period: Devonian
   Epoch: Early
    Age: Pragian


Doryaspis & Actiniaria

8-inch-long jawless fish of the genus Doryaspis swim amongst a bed of Anthozoa
of the order Actiniaria (AKA sea anemones) 410 million years ago in what is today the Svalbard archipelago in Norway. Doryaspis (AKA Lyktaspis) was armored with bony spines and a long snout that had spines set along its length (somewhat like the "saw" of a modern sawfish). Doryaspis' mouth opened above, rather than below, the snout and is believed to have dined on plankton, however the snout may have been used to stir up small crustaceans from the mud or sand.

In addition to a variety of anemones are palm-like crinoids (class Crinoidea), pentagonal-shaped sea stars, nautilus-like ammonites, and squid-like nautiloid cephalopods of the genus Orthoceras.



Copyright Walter B. Myers. All rights reserved.

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